For each of the so-called Annex I countries the Kyoto Protocol sets a reduction target for total national greenhouse gas emissions for the period 2008-2012 relative to the base year 1990-1992. These individual targets are for ‘national emissions’, i.e. emissions due to economic activities taking place on national territory, which must be reported to the Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in a ‘National Greenhouse Gas Inventory’. International emissions of greenhouse gases associated with fuels bunkered by international aviation and marine shipping are not included in these national targets, and are to be reported separately. Emissions due to domestic aviation and marine are regarded as ‘national emissions’, to be included as such in the national inventory.
In 1996 the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) of UNFCCC elaborated eight options for allocating responsibilities for greenhouse gas emissions from international aviation and marine shipping. In order to facilitate the debate on the allocation issue at the meetings of UNFCCC, SBSTA and ICAO’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP), the Dutch Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) commissioned a study to assess the distributional consequences for 23 individual countries of each of the UNFCCC/SBSTA CO2 emissions allocation options. The aim of the study was to provide insight into how the eight options identified by UNFCCC/SBSTA for national allocation of international aviation and marine emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) translate into assigned amounts accruing to individual countries.